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About Institutes Public Relations Technology Transfer Students\International Information Center (Library) Administration
שלח באימייל הדפס
Name: Alon Ben-Gal, Ph.D. (Researcher)
Units: Gilat CenterSoil and water
Research Interests / Job description  Latest Chapters In Blog
Tel:  08-9928644
Cell: 050-6220125
Email:    bengal@volcani.agri.gov.il
Office location:Gilat Research Center
Address:mobile post Negev 2, 85280

Senior Researcher - Soil, Water & Environmental Sciences: Environmental Physics and Irrigation

Research Interests / Job description
X-treme agriculture: managing water in the arid zones

Areas of Interest

  • Plant response to environmental stress conditions
  • Irrigation of crops
  • Agricultural utilization of saline water and of recycled wastewater
  • Optimization of irrigation water in arid regions
  • Flow and transport of water and solutes in the vadose zone
  • Water and nutrient uptake by roots 


Ph.D. Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel 2003

M.Sc. Soil, Environmental Science, Cum Laude.  The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 1994

B.Sc. Agrarian Studies: Soil and Water Science, Cum Laude.  The University of California, Davis, CA. 1985

Professional Experience

2018-2019 - Visiting Scientist. Institute of Water and Environment.. Mekelle University, Ethiopia.

2016- Senior Research Scientist Grade A+   Environmental Physics and Irrigation. Institute of Soil Water and Environmental Sciences. Gilat Research center. Agricultural Research Organization, Israel. 

2009-2010 - Visiting scholar. Soil Physics, Ecohydrology and Ground Water Management Group. Wageningen University, The Netherlands

2007 - Senior Researcher (Environmental Physics and Irrigation). Gilat Research center. Agricultural Research Organization, Israel. 

2004 2007 Researcher (Environmental Physics and Irrigation). Gilat Research Center. Agricultural Research Organization, Israel.        

2002 - 2004  Researcher (Agricultural Water Use Efficiency). Arava Research and Development, Yotvata, Israel.

2001- 2002  Post-doctoral fellowship (Soil Science). Utah State University. Logan, UT                                                               

1994 - 2001  Research Assistant. Arava Research and Development.

1992 - 1994  Research Assistant. National Center for Mariculture. Eilat, Israel                                                                                 

1990 - 1991  Research Technician. Arava Research and Development

1987 - 1990  Irrigation Manager. Kibbutz Ketura, Israel


Updated publications via Google Scholar (click)


  • Sperling, O., Gardi, I., Ben-Gal, A., Kamai, T. (2023) Deficit irrigation limits almond trees’ photosynthetic productivity and compromises yields. Agricultural Water Management, 108562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108562
  • Qadir, M., Drechsel, P., Pedrero Salcedo, F., Ponce Robles, L., Ben-Gal, A., Grattan, S. R. 2023. Chemical risks and risk management measures of relevance to crop production with special consideration of salinity. In: Pay Drechsel, Sara Majani Zadeh, and Francisco Pedrero Salcedo, eds., Water Quality in Agriculture: Risks and Risk Mitigation, Rome, Italy: FAO; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). pp.41-75. ISBN 978-92-5-138072-7.
  • Yang, G., Qiao, X., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Wu, X., Liu, L., Ben-Gal, A. (2023). Remotely sensed estimation of root-zone salinity in salinized farmland based on soil-crop water relations. Science of Remote Sensing, 8, 100104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srs.2023.100104 
  • David Yalin*, Hillary A. Craddock*, Shmuel Assouline, Evyatar Ben Mordechay, Alon Ben-Gal, Nirit Bernstein, Rabia M. Chaudhry; Benny Chefetz; Despo Fatta-Kassinos; Kerry A. Hamilton; Leron Khalifa; Isaya Kisekka; Iftach Klapp; Daniel Kurtzman; Hila Korach-Rechtman; Guy J. Levy; Sixto Malato; Célia M. Manaia; Orah F. Moshe; Andrew Rimelman; Luigi Rizzo; David L Sedlak; Maya Shnit-Orland; Eliav Shtull-Trauring; Jorge Tarchitzky; Venus Welch-White; Clinton Williams; Jean McLain. Mitigating Risks and Maximizing Sustainability of Treated Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation. Water Research X. 21, 100203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wroa.2023.100203 
  • Ben Gal A., Caruso G., Gucci R., Lo Bianco R., Marra F.P. (2023) Water Requirements and Irrigation. In: Andrea Fabbri, Luciana Baldoni, Tiziano Caruso,  Franco Famiani eds., The Olive Botany and Production. CABI. ePub:eISBN : 978-1-78924-735-0656 pages2023
  • Dag, A., Badichi, S., Ben-Gal, A., Perry, A., Tel-Zur, N., Teitel, Z., Yermiyau, U. (2023) Optimizing nitrogen application for jojoba under intensive cultivation. Plants. 12, 3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12173132.  
  • Nicolas, F., Kamai, T., Ben-Gal, A., Ochoa, J., Daccache, A., Ogunmokun, F., Kisekka, I. (2023). Assessing salinity impacts on crop yield and economic returns in the Central Valley. Agricultural Water Management, 287, 108463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108463
  • Wang, T., Xu, Y., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Wu, X., Liu, L., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Ben-Gal, A. (2023) Evaluating and improving soil water and salinity stress response functions for root water uptake. Agricultural Water Management. 287, 108451, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108451
  • Wang L., Ning, S., Zheng, W., Guo, W., Li, Y., Li, Y., Chen, X., Ben-Gal, A., Wei, X. (2023) Performance analysis of two typical greenhouse lettuce production systems: Commercial hydroponic production and traditional soil cultivation. Frontiers in Plant Science Volume 14 – 2023. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2023.1165856
  • Erel, R., Yermiyahu, U., Yasour, H., Ben-Gal, A., Zipori, I., Dag, A. (2023) Elevated Fruit Nitrogen Impairs Oil Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea L.). Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 14 - 2023 https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2023.1180391 
  • Zhang, T., Zuo, Q., Ma, N., Shi, J., Fan, Y., Wu, X., Wang, L., Xue, X., Ben-Gal, A. (2023) Optimizing relative root-zone water depletion thresholds to maximize yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat using AquaCrop. Agricultural Water Management.  286, 108391, Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108391
  • Hochberg, U., Perry, A., Rachmilevitch, S., Ben-Gal, A., Sperling, O. (2023) Instantaneous and lasting effects of drought on grapevine water use. Agricultural Forest Meteorology. 338, 109521 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109521   
  • Liu, L., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Wu, X., Wei, C., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Chen, Q., Ben-Gal, A. (2023) Balancing economic benefits and environmental repercussions based on smart irrigation by regulating root zone water and salinity dynamics. Agricultural Water Management, 285, 108366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108366 
  • Katz, L., Ben-Gal, A., Litaor, M.I., Naor, A., Peeters, A., Goldshtein, E., Lidor, G., Keisar, O., Marzuk, S., Alchanatis, V.,Cohen, Y. (2023) How sensitive is thermal image-based orchard water status estimation to canopy extraction quality? Remote Sensing, 15, 1448. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051448
  • Fan, J., Wu X., Yu, Y., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Halpern, M., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Ben-Gal, A. (2023) Characterizing root-water-uptake of wheat under elevated CO2 concentration. Agric Water Man 275, 108005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2022.108005 
  • Meng, W., Xing, J., Niu, M., Zuo, Q., Wu, X., Shi, J., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Chen, Q., Ben-Gal, A. (2023) Root distribution-based fertigation scheduling. Agric Water Man 275, 107994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2022.107994


  • Katz, L., Ben-Gal, A., Litaor, I., Naor, A., Peres, M., Peeters, A., Alchanatis, V., Cohen, Y. (2022) A spatiotemporal decision support protocol based on thermal imagery for variable rate drip irrigation of a peach orchard. Irrigation Science https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-022-00830-x
  • Wang, L., Yermiyahu, U., Yasuor, H., Ning, S., Tan, J., Ben-Gal, A. (2022) Simulating water and potassium uptake of greenhouse tomato as a function of salinity stress. Irrigation Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-022-00812-z 
  • Qiao, X., Yang, G., Shi, J., Zuo, Q., Liu, L., Niu M., Wu, X., Ben-Gal. A. (2022) Remote sensing data fusion to evaluate patterns of regional evapotranspiration: a case study for dynamics of film-mulched drip irrigated cotton in China's Manas River Basin over 20 years. Remote Sensing, 14, 3438. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14143438 
  • Zipori, I., Yermiyahu, U., Dag, A., Erel, R., Ben-Gal, A., Quan, L., Kerem, Z. (2022) Effect of macronutrient fertilization on olive oil composition and quality under irrigated, intensive cultivation management. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.12110 
  • Ben-Gal, A., Cohen, Y., Peeters, A., Naor, A., Nezer, Y., Ohana-Levi, N., Bahat, I., Katz, L., Shaked, B., Linker, R., Yulzary, S., Alchanatis, V. (2022) Precision drip irrigation for horticulture: methods for managing spatial variability from vineyard and orchard trials in Israel. Acta Horticulturae 1335, 267-274
  • Wu, X., Shi, J., Zhang, T., Zuo, Q., Wang, L., Xueb, X., Ben-Gal, A. (2022) Crop yield estimation and irrigation scheduling optimization using a root-weighted soil water availability based water production function. Field Crops Research. 284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2022.108579. 
  • Liu, L., Wang, T., Wang, L., Wu, X., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Chen, Q., Ben-Gal, A. (2022) Plant water deficit index-based irrigation under conditions of salinity. Agricultural Water Management, 269, 107669 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2022.107669   
  • Katz, L., Ben-Gal A., Litaor, M.I., Naor, A., Peres, M., Bahat, I., Netzer, Peeters, A., Alchanatis, V., Cohen, Y. (2022). Spatiotemporal normalized ratio methodology to evaluate the impact of field-scale variable rate application. Precision Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-022-09877-4.
  • Markovich, O., Zexer, N., Negin B, Zait Y, Blum S., Ben-Gal A, Moshelion M and Elbaum R. (2022) Low Si combined with drought causes reduced transpiration in sorghum Lsi1 mutant Plant and Soil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05298-4.  https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20161 
  • Fan J., Halperin, M. Yu, Y., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Fan, Y., Wu, X., Yermiyahu U., Sheng, J., Jiang, P., Ben-Gal A. (2022) The mechanisms responsible for N deficiency in well-watered wheat under elevated CO2. Frontiers in Plant Science. 13:801443. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.801443


  • Ohana-Levi, N., Ben-Gal, A., Munitz, S., Netzer, Y. (2021) Grapevine water consumption and crop coefficient forecasting using linear and non-linear multiple regression models. Agricultural Water Management, 262, 107317 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107317.
  • Tzohar, D., Moshelion, M., Ben-Gal, A. (2021) Compensatory uptake of water by tomato due to variable root zone salinity. Vadose Zone Journal 2021;1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20161 
  • Haberman, A., Dag, A., Erel, R.,  Zipori, I., Shtern, N., Ben-Gal, A., and Yermiyahu, U. (2021) Long-term impact of phosphorous fertilization on yield and alternate bearing in intensive irrigated olive cultivation. Plants, 10(9), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091821
  • Lazare, S., Yasuor, H., Yermiyahu, U., Kuhalskaya, A., Brotman, Y., Ben Gal, A., Dag, A. (2021) It takes two: reciprocal scion-rootstock relationships enable salt tolerance in 'Hass' avocado. Plant Science accepted 28/08/21 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.111048
  • Lazare, S., Cohen, Y., Goldshtein, E., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A. (2021) Rootstock-dependent response of Hass avocado to salt stress. Plants, 10, 1672. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081672 
  • Ohana-Levi, N., Derumigny, A, Peeters, A., Ben-Gal, A., Bahat, I., Katz I., Netzer Y., Naor, A., Cohen, Y. (2021) A multifunctional matching algorithm for sample design in agricultural plots. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 187, 106262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106262  
  • Wang, L., Ning, S., Chen, X, Li, Y., Guo, W., Ben-Gal, A. (2021) Modeling tomato root water uptake influenced by soil salinity under drip irrigation with an inverse method. Agric Water Manag. 255, 106975 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.106975 
  • Bahat, I., Netzer, Y., Grünzweig, J., Goldstein, E., **Ohana-Levi, N., Ben-Gal, A., Peeters, A., Cohen, Y. (2021) In-season interactions between vine vigor, water status and wine quality in terrain-based management-zones in a ‘Cabernet Sauvignon' vineyard. Remote Sensing. 13(9):1636. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13091636
  • Wu, X, Xu, Y., Shi, J., Zuo, Q., Zhang, T., Wang, L., Xue, X., Ben-Gal, A. (2021) Estimating stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration of winter wheat using a soil-plant water relations-based stress index. Agricultural Forest Meteorology. Agricultural Forest Meteorology. 303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108393 
  • Shi, J., Wu, X., Zhang, M., Wang, X., Zuo, Q., Wu, X., Zhang, H., Ben-Gal, A. (2021) Numerically scheduling plant water deficit index-based smart irrigation to optimize crop yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management 248, 106774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2021.106774
  • Kool, D. Kustas, W.P., Ben-Gal, A., Agam, N. (2021) Energy partitioning between plant canopy and soil, performance of the two-source energy balance model in a vineyard. Agricultural Forest Meteorology, 300, 108328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108328
  • Hopmans, J.W., Qureshi, A. S., Kisekka, I., Munns, R., Grattan, S.R., Rengasamy, P., Ben-Gal, A., Assouline, S., Javaux, M., Minhas, P.S., Raats, P.A.C., Skaggs, T., Wang, G., De Jong van Lier, Q., Jiao, H., Lavado, R.S., Lazarovitch, N., Li, B., and Taleisnik, E. (2021) Critical Knowledge Gaps and Research Priorities in Global Soil Salinity. Advances in Agronomy, in press.
  • Ben-Gal, A., Ron, Y., Yermiyahu, U., Zipori, I., Naoum, S., Dag, A. (2021) Evaluation of regulated deficit irrigation strategies for oil olives: a case study for two modern Israeli cultivars. Agric Water Manag. 245, 106577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106577


  • Tan, J. Ben-Gal, A., Shtein, I., Dag, A., Bustan, A., Erel, R. (2020) Structural root modification enables efficient salt compartmentalization in olive. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 179 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104224
  • Wu, X., Shi, J., Zuo, Q., Zhang, M., Xue, X., Wang, L., Ben-Gal, A. (2020) Parameterization of the water stress reduction function based on soil-plant water relations. Irrigation Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00271-020-00689-w
  • Yasuor, H., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A. (2020) Consequences of irrigation and fertigation of vegetable crops with variable quality water: Israel as a case study. Agric Wat Man https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106362
  • Pedrero, F., Grattan, S.R., Ben-Gal, A., Vivaldi, A. (2020) Opportunities for expanding the use of wastewaters for irrigation of olives. Agric Water Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106333  
  • Ohana Levi, N., Ben-Gal, A., Peeters, A., Termin, D., Linker, R., Baram, S., Raveh, E., Paz-Kagan, T. (2020) A comparison between clustering models for determining N-fertilization management zones in orchards. Precision Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-020-09731-5
  • Huang, C., Yermiyahu U., Shenker, M., Ben-Gal A. (2020) Effect of leaching events on fate of polyhalite nutrient minerals used for crop fertilization. J of Plant Nutrition in press
  • Wu, X., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Wang, L., Xue, X., and Ben-Gal, A. (2020) Introducing water stress hysteresis to the Feddes empirical macroscopic root water uptake model. Agric Water Manag.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106293
  • Gómez J.A., Ben-Gal A., Alarcón J.J., De Lannnoy G., De Roos S., Dostál T.,Fereres E., Intrigliolo D.S, Krasa J., Klik A., Liebhard G., Nolz R., Peeters A., Plaas E., Quinton J.N., RuiM., Strauss P., Weifeng X., Zhang Z., Zhong F., Zumr D. & Dodd I.C., (2020) SHui, an EU-Chinese cooperative project to optimise soil and water management in agricultural areas in the XXI century. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2020.01.001
  • Weissman, G., Bel, G., Ben-Gal, A., Yermiyahu, U., Alexandrov, B., Rasmussen, K.O. Dahan, O (2020) Increased salinity of irrigation water enhances nitrate transport to deep unsaturated soil. Vadose Zone J. https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20041
  • Lazare, S., Lyu, Y., Yermiyahu, U., Heller, Y., Ben-Gal, A., Holland, D., Dag, A. (2020) Optimizing nitrogen application for growth and productivity of pomegranates. Agronomy, 10: 366
  • Zipori, I., Erel, R., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A. (2020) Sustainable management of olive orchard nutrition: A review. Agriculture. 10, 11; doi:10.3390/agriculture10010011.
  • Shi, J., Wang, X., Zhang, M., Wu, X., Zhang, W., Liu, W., Han, L., Zuo,Q., Wu, X., Zhang, H., Ben-Gal, A. (2020) Determining threshold values for root-soil water weighted plant water deficit index based smart irrigation. Agric Water Manag. 230, 105979.
  • Ohana-Levi, N., Munitz, S., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Peeters, A., Netzer, Y. (2020) Multiseasonal grapevine water consumption - drivers and forecasting. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 280, 107796.
  • Minhas, P.S., Ramos, T., Ben-Gal, A., Pereira, LS. (2020) Coping with Salinity in Irrigated Agriculture: Crop Evapotranspiration and Water Management Issues. Agric Water Manag. 227, 105832.
  • Ohana-Levi, N., Munitz, S., Ben-Gal, A., Netzer, U. (2020). Evaluation of within-season variability of grapevine evapotranspiration response to temporally varying factors using generalized additive models. Agric Water Manag. 228, 105808


  • Haberman, A., Dag, A., Shtern, N., Zipori, I., Erel, R., Ben-Gal, A. and Yermiyahu, U. (2019) Long-term impact of potassium fertilization on soil and productivity in intensive olive cultivation. Agronomy. 9, 525; doi:10.3390/agronomy9090525
  • Basheer, L., Dag, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Zipori, I., and Kerem, Z. (2019) Effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation and fertigation level on olive oil composition and quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. In press. 
  • Ohana-Levi, N., Bahat, I., Peeters, A., Stein, A., Cohen, Y., Nezer Y., Ben-Gal, A. (2019) A weighted multivariate spatial clustering model to determine irrigation management zones. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 162, 719-731.
  • Haberman, A., Dag, A., Shtern, N., Zipori, I., Erel, R., Ben-Gal, A. and Yermiyahu, U. (2019) Significance of proper nitrogen fertilization for olive productivity in intensive cultivation. Scientia Horticulturae. 246, 710-717.
  • Kaner A, Hadas E, Tripler E, Ben-Gal, A. (2019) Agronomic-economic coupled decision support application for irrigation with water containing salts. Advances in Agricultural Systems Modeling. Vol 6, in press.
  • Erel, R., Eppel, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Levy, G., Zipori, I., Schaumann, G.E., Mayer, O., Dag, A. (2019) The long-term effects of irrigation with reclaimed wastewater and fertilization management on soil chemistry and olive (Olea europaea L.) performance. Agric Water Manag. 213, 324-335.
  • Teitel Z, Dag A, Yermiyahu U, Zipori I, Beiersdorf, I., Krispin, S., Ben-Gal A (2019) Irrigation-induced salinity affects olive oil quality and health-promoting properties. J Science Food Agric. 99: 1180–1189.
  • Kaner A, Hadas E, Tripler E, Ben-Gal, A. (2019) Agronomic-economic coupled decision support application for irrigation with water containing salts. In: O. Wendroth, R.J. Lascano, L. Ma, editors, Bridging Among Disciplines by Synthesizing Soil and Plant Processes, Adv. Agric. Syst. Model. 8. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI. doi:10.2134/advagricsystmodel8.2017.0013.



  • Li, S., Zuo, Q., Jin, X., Ma, W., Shi, J, Ben-Gal, A. (2018) The physiological processes and mechanisms for superior water productivity of a popular ground cover rice production system. Agricultural Water Management. 201, 11-20.
  • Helman, D., Bahat, I., Netzer, I., Ben-Gal, A., Peeters, A., and Cohen, Y. (2018) Using time series of high-resolution planet satellites images to monitor grapevine stem water potential in commercial vineyards. Remote Sensing, 10, 1615. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101615
  • Raveh, E., Ben-Gal, A. (2018) Leveraging sustainable irrigated agriculture via desalination: Evidence from a macro-data case study in Israel. Sustainability 10, 974; doi:10.3390/su10040974
  • Kool, D., Ben-Gal, A., Agam, N. (2018) Within-field advection enhances evaporation and transpiration in a vineyard in an arid environment. Agric Forest Meteorology, 255, 104-113.
  • Raij, I., Ben-Gal, A., Lazarovitch, N. (2018) Soil and irrigation heterogeneity effects on drainage amount and concentration in lysimeters: a numerical study. Agric Water Manag, 195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2017.09.012
  • Li, S., Zuo, Q., Wang, X., Ma, W.a, Jin, X., Shi, J., Ben-Gal, A. (2017) Characterizing roots and water uptake in a ground cover rice production system. PLoS ONE. 12(7): e0180713. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180713
  • Käthner J, Ben-Gal A., Gebbers, R., Peeters, A., Herppich, WB. and Zude-Sasse, M. (2017) Evaluating spatially resolved influence of soil and tree water status on quality of European plum grown in semi-humid climate. Frontiers of Plant Science. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01053
  • Yasuor, H., Tamir, G., Stein, A, Cohen, S., Bar Tal, A., Ben-Gal, A., Yermiyahu, U. (2017) Does water salinity affect pepper plant response to nitrogen fertigation? Agric Water Man. 191, 57-66.
  • Kaner, A., Tripler, E., Hadas, E., Ben-Gal, A.  (2017) Feasibility of Desalination as an alternative to irrigation with water high in salts. Desalination. 416, 122-128. 
  • Wu, X., Zhang, W., Liu, W, Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Yan, X., Zhang, H., Xue, X., Wang, L., Zhang, M., Ben-Gal, A. (2017) Root-weighted soil water status for plant water deficit index based irrigation scheduling. Agric Water Manag. 189, 137-147. 
  • Berezniak, A., Ben-Gal, A., Mishael, Y., Nachshon, U.  (2017) Manipulation of soil texture to remove salts from a drip irrigated root zone. Vadose Zone Journal doi:10.2136/vzj2017.01.0019
  • Bar-Tal, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Schwartz, A., Faingold, I., Seligmann, R. (2017) Optimization of calcium and magnesium concentrations for fertigation of tomato with desalinated water. Israel J of Plant Sci. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07929978.2017.1288466
  • Ben-Gal, A., Beiersdorf, I., Yermiyahu, U., Soda, N., Presnov, E., Zipori, I., Ramirez Cristostomo, R., Dag, A. (2017) Response of bearing olive trees to irrigation induced salinity. Irrigation Science. 35:99–109
  • Soda, N., Ephrath, J., Dag, A., Beiersdorf, I., Presnov, E., Yermiyahu, Ben-Gal, A. (2017)  Root growth dynamics of olive (Olea europaea L.) affected by irrigation induced salinity. Plant Soil, 411:305–318. 


  • Kool, D., Heitman, JL., Lazarovitch, N., Agam, N., Sauer, T., Ben-Gal, A. (2016) In-situ thermistor calibration for improved measurement of soil temperature gradients. Soil Science Soc Am J, 80, 1514-1519
  • Erel, R., Yermiyahu, U., Yasour, H., Cohen Chamus, D., Schwartz, A., Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A. (2016) Phosphorous nutritional level, carbohydrate reserves and flower quality in olives. PLoS ONE, 11(12)
  • Raij, I., Šim?nek, J., Ben-Gal, A., Lazarovitch, N. (2016) Water flow and multicomponent solute transport in drip irrigated lysimeters. Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/2016WR018930. 
  • Jin, X., Zuo, Q., Ma, W., Li, S. Shi, J., Tao, Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y.,  Liu, X., Lin, S., Ben-Gal, A. (2016) Water consumption and water-saving characteristics of a ground cover rice production system. J of Hydrology, 540, 220-231. 
  • Raveh, E. and Ben-Gal, A. (2016) Irrigation with water containing salts: evidence from a macro-data national case study in Israel. Agric Water Manag. 170, 176-179.
  • Bustan, A., Dag, A., Yermiyahu, U., Erel, R., Presnov, E., Agam, N., Kool, D., Iwema, J., Zipori, I. and Ben-Gal, A. (2016) Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees. Tree Physiology, 36, 380-391.
  • Tugendhaft, Y. Eppel A, Kerem Z, Barazani O, Ben-Gal A, Kadereit JW and Dag A (2016) Drought tolerance of three olive cultivars alternatively selected for rain fed or intensive cultivation. Scientia Horticulturae . 199, 158-162.
  • Kool, D., Kustas, W.P., Ben-Gal, A., Lazarovitch, N., Heitman, J., Sauer, T., Agam, N. (2016) Energy and evapotranspiration partitioning in a desert vineyard. Agric Forest Meteorology. 218-219, 277-287.


  • Dag, A. Ben- Gal, A., Goldberg, S., Yermiyahu, U., .Zipori, I., Or, E., David, I., Netzer Y., and Kerem, Z. (2015) Sodium and chloride accumulation in woody tissue of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and in must as a function of rootstock and irrigation water salinity. Am J. Enol. Vit. 66, 80-84.
  • Peeters, A., Käthner, J., Zude, M., Ünlü, M., Kanber, R., Hetzroni, A., Gebbers, R., and Ben-Gal, A., (2015) Getis-Ord's hot- and cold-spot statistics as a basis for multivariate spatial clustering of tree-based data. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 111, 140-150.
  • Shi., J., Zuo Q., Li, S., Ben-Gal A. (2015) An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content. J of Hydrology, 522, 285-294.
  • Erel, R. Yermiyahu, U., Dag A., Ben-Gal, A., Shapiro, O., Schwartz, A. (2015) Modification of non-stomatal limitation and photoprotection due to K and Na nutrition of olive trees. Journal of plant physiology. in press.
  • Zipori, I., †Yermiyahu, U., Erel, R., Presnov, E., Feingold, I., Dag, A., Ben-Gal, A. (2015) The influence of irrigation level on olive tree nutritional status. Irrigation Science. 66, 80-84.
  • Ning, S., Zuo, Q., Shi, J., Wang, S. and Ben-Gal, A. (2015) Generalization of the root length density distribution of cotton under drip irrigation. Field Crops Research. 177, 125-136.
  • Silva Ruiz, M., Yasour, H., Ben-Gal, A., Yermiyahu U., Saranga, Y., Elbaum R. (2015) Fruit hypodermis thickening induced by salinity alters the texture of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ssp.) fruits Scientia Horticulturae, 192, 244-249.


  • Kool, D., Agam, N., Heitman, JL., Lazarovitch, N., Sauer, TJ. and Ben-Gal, A. (2014) A review of approaches for evapotranspiration partitioning. Agric Forest Meteorology, 184, 56-70.
  • Ityel E., Ben-Gal A., Silberbush, M., and Lazarovitch N. (2014) Root zone oxygen level in irrigated arid region horticulture can be artificially raised by a capillary barrier. Agricultural Water Management. 131, 108-114.
  • Erel, R., Kerem, Z., Ben-Gal A., Dag, A., Schwartz A., Zipori I., Basheer L., and Yermiyahu, U. (2014) Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, DOI: 10.1021/jf4031585.
  • Holland, S., Howard, A., Heitman, J.L., Giese, W., Sutton, T., Agam, N., Ben-Gal, A., Havlin, J.L., and Sauer, T.J. (2014) Implications of an interrow fescue cover crop for below-canopy water dynamics in a North Carolina vineyard. Agronomy Journal.
  • Bustan A., Kerem Z., Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal A., Lichter A., Droby S., Zchori-Fein E., Orbach D., Zipori I., and Dag A. (2014) Preharvest circumstances leading to elevated oil acidity in 'Barnea' olives. Scientia Horticulturae. 176, 11-21.
  • Ünlü ,M., Kanber, R., Levent Koç, D., Özekici, B., Kekeç, U., Yesilo?lu, T., Orta?, ?., Ünlü, F., Kapur, B., Tekin, S., Käthner, J., Gebbers, R., Zude, M., Peeters, A., Ben-Gal, A. (2014) Irrigation scheduling of grapefruit trees in a Mediterranean environment throughout evaluation of plant water status and evapotranspiration. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 38, 908-915.
  • Kool, D., Ben-Gal, A., Agam, N., Šim?nek, J., Heitman, JL., Sauer, TJ. and Lazarovitch, N. (2014) Spatial and diurnal below canopy evaporation in a desert vineyard: measurements and modeling. Water Resour. Res., 50, doi:10.1002/2014WR015409.
  • Shi J., Yasour H., Yermiyahu U., Zuo Q., Ben-Gal A. (2014) Dynamic responses of wheat to drought and nitrogen stresses during re-watering cycles. Agric. Water Manag. 146, 163-172.
  • Erel R., Ben-Gal A., Dag, A., Schwartz A., Yermiyahu, U. (2014) Sodium replacement of potassium in physiological processes of olive trees (var. Barnea) as affected by drought. Tree Physiology. 34, 1102-1117.
  • Dag A, Naor A., Ben-Gal A., Harlev, G., Zipori, I., Schneider, D., Birger, R., Peres, M., Gal, Y., and Kerem Z. (2014) The effect of water stress on super-high density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality J. Sci. Food Agric., 95, 2016-2020.



  • Shi, J., Ben-Gal A., Yermiyahu U., Wang, L., Zuo, Q. (2013) Characterizing root nitrogen uptake of wheat to simulate soil nitrogen dynamics. Plant and Soil, 363:139-155.
  • Naor, A., Schneider, D., Ben-Gal A., Dag, A., Zipori, I., Kerem, Z., Birger, R., Peres, M., Gal, Y. (2013) The effects of crop load and irrigation rate in the oil accumulation stage on oil yield and water relations of field-grown 'Koroneiki' olives. Irrigation Science, 31, 781-791.
  • Agam N., Cohen Y., Alchanatis V., Ben-Gal A. (2013) How sensitive is the CWSI to changes in solar radiation? International Journal of Remote Sensing. 34, 6109-6120.
  • Agam N., Cohen Y., Alchanatis V., Berni J.A.J., Kool D., Dag A., Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal A. (2013). An insight to the performance of crop water stress index for olive trees. Agric Water Manage. 118,79-86.
  • Bustan, A., Avnia, A., Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A., Riov, J., Erel, R., Zipori, I, and Dag, A. (2013) Interactions between fruit load and macro-element concentrations in fertigated olive (Olea europaea L.) trees under arid saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae. 152, 44-55.
  • Groenveld, T., Ben-Gal A., Yermiyahu, U., Lazarovitch, N. (2013). Weather determined relative sensitivity of plants to salinity: quantification and simulation. Vadose Zone J. in doi:10.2136/vzj2012.0180.
  • Ben-Gal, A, Weikard, H-P, Shah SH, van der Zee S. (2013) A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water. Water Resour. Res. 49, doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20258.
  • Holland, S., Heitman, J.L., Howard, A., Sauer, T.J., Giese, W., Ben-Gal, A., Agam, N., Kool, D., and Havlin J. (2013) Micro-Bowen ratio systems for measuring evapotranspiration in a vineyard inter-row. Agric Forest Meteorology. 177, 93-100.
  • Erel R., Yermiyahu U., van Opstal J., Ben-Gal A., Schwartz A., Dag A. (2013) The importance of olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nutritional status on its productivity. Scientia Horticulturae. 159, 8-18.
  • Yasour H., Beit-Yannai E, Ben-Gal A., Cohen S., Yermiyahu U. (2013) Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Greenhouse Bell Pepper: Agronomic and Environmental Implications. HortScience, 48, 1241-1249.
  • Agam, N., Segal, E., Peeters, A., Dag, A., Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal, A. (2013) Spatial distribution of water status in irrigated olive orchard by thermal imaging. Precision Agriculture. doi.org/10.1007/s11119-013-9331-8.


  • Ityel E., Lazarovitch N., Silberbush, M., and Ben-Gal A. (2012) An artificial capillary barrier to improve root zone conditions for horticultural crops: response of pepper, lettuce, melon and tomato. Irrigation Science. 30, 293-301.
  • Aviani, I., Raviv, M. Saadi, I. Hadar, Y. Dag, A. Ben-Gal, A. Yermiyahu, U. Zipori, I. Laor. Y. (2012) Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system. Bioresource Technolog. 107, 86-96.
  • Ityel E., Lazarovitch N., Silberbush, M., and Ben-Gal A. (2012) An artificial capillary barrier to improve root-zone conditions for horticultural crops: response of pepper plants to matric head and irrigation water salinity. Agric. Water Manag. 105, 13-20.
  • Dag, A., Erel, R., Ben-Gal, A., Zipori, I., Yermiyahu, U. (2012) The effect of olive tree stock plant nutritional status on propagation rates. HortScience, 47, 307-310.
  • Tripler E., Shani, U., Ben-Gal A., and Mualem Y. (2012) Apparent steady state conditions in high resolution weighing-drainage lysimeters containing date palms grown under different salinities. Agric Water Manag. 107, 66-73.


  • Ityel E., Lazarovitch N., Silberbush, M., and Ben-Gal A. (2011) An artificial capillary barrier to improve root zone conditions for horticultural crops: physical effects on water content. Irrigation Sci. 29, 171-180.
  • Ben-Gal A, Yermiyahu U, Zipori I, Presnov E, Hanoch E, and Dag A. (2011) The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil production response to irrigation. Irrigation Sci. 29, 253-263.
  • Segal E, Dag A, Ben-Gal A, Zipori A, Erel R, Suryanob S and Yermiyahu U, (2011) Olive orchard irrigation with reclaimed wastewater: agronomic and environmental considerations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 40, 454-461.
  • Tripler E, Shani U, Mualem Y and Ben-Gal A. (2011) Long-term growth, water consumption and yield of date palm as a function of salinity. Agric. Water Manage. 99, 128-134.
  • Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A., Basheer, L., Yermiyahu, U., Zipori, I., Kerem, Z. (2011) The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil quality response to irrigation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 11667-11675.


  • Ben-Gal A, Kool D, Agam N, van Helsema G, Yermiyahu U, Yafe A, Presnov E, Erel R, Majdo A, Zipori I, Segal E, Rüger S, Zimmermann U, Cohen Y, Alchanatis V, Dag A. (2010) Whole-tree water balance and indicators for short-term drought stress in non-bearing 'Barnea' olives. Agric. Water Manag. 98, 124-133.


  • Ben-Gal A. Yermiyahu U. and Cohen S. (2009) Fertilization and blending alternatives for irrigation with desalinated water. J Environ Qual 38:529-536.
  • Ben-Gal A, Neori-Borochov H, Yermiyahu U and Shani U. (2009) Is osmotic potential a more appropriate property than electrical conductivity for evaluating whole plant response to salinity? Environ Exp Botany. 65, 232-237.
  • Ben-Gal A, Agam N, Alchanatis V, Cohen Y, Zipori I, Presnov E, Yermiyahu U, Sprintsin M, and Dag A. (2009) Evaluating water stress in irrigated olives: correlation of soil water status, tree water status and thermal imagery. Irrigation Science. 27, 367-376.
  • Dag A, Yermiyahu U, Ben-Gal A, Zipori I, and Kapulnik Y. (2009) Nursery and post-transplant field response of olive trees to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under arid conditions. Crop and Pasture Science. 60, 427-433.
  • Dag A, Ben-David E, Kerem Z, Ben-Gal A, Erel R, Basheer L, and Yermiyahu U. (2009) Olive Oil Composition as a Function of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Plant Nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 89, 1871-1878.


  • Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal A., Keren R. and Reid R.J. (2008). Combined effect of salinity and excess boron on plant growth and yield. Plant and Soil, 304, pp. 73-87.
  • Ben-Gal A, Ityel E, Dudley L., Cohen S, Yermiyahu U, Presnov E, Zigmond L, Shani U. (2008) Effect of irrigation water salinity on transpiration and on leaching requirements: A case study for bell peppers. Agric. Water Manag. 95, 587-597.
  • Dudley L., Ben-Gal A. and Shani U. (2008) Influence of plant, soil and water properties on the leaching fraction. Vadose Zone J. 7, 420-425.
  • Bar-Tal, A. Yermiyahu, U., Keinan, M., Faingold, I., and Ben-Gal, A. (2008) Boron deficiency and toxicity in young persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L.). J. of Hortic. Sci. and Biotech. 83, 469-473.
  • Ben-Gal, A., Dag, A., Yermiyahu, U., Zipori Y., Presnov, E., Faingold, I. and Kerem, Z. (2008) Evaluation of irrigation levels in a converted, rain fed olive orchard: the transition year. Acta Horticulturae. 792, 99-106.
  • Ben-Gal, A., Yermiyahu, U., Veste, M. and Shani, U. (2008) Irrigating table grapes in arid regions with low quality water: effects of salinity and excess boron. Acta Horticulturae. 792, 107-114.
  • Dag, A. Ben-Gal A., Yermiyahu U., Basheer L., Yogev N., and Kerem Z. (2008) The effect of irrigation level and harvest mechanization on virgin olive oil quality in a traditional rain-fed "Souri" olive orchard converted to irrigation. J. Science Food Agric. 88, 1524-1528.
  • Gross, A., Bernstein, A., Vulkan, R., Tarchitzky., J., Ben-Gal, A., and Yermiyahu, U., (2008) Simple digestion procedure followed by the azomethine-H method for accurate boron analysis and discrimination between its fractions in wastewater and soils. Chemosphere. 72, 400-406.
  • Erel R. Dag A Ben-Gal A Schwartz A and Yermiyahu U Flowering and fruit-set of young olive (Olea europea L. cv. Barnea) trees in response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (2008) J Am Soc Hort Sci 133, 639-647.
  • Dudley, L.M., Ben-Gal, A. and Lazarovitch, N. (2008) Drainage water reuse: biological, physical, and technological considerations for system management. Journal of Environmental Quality. 37, S25-S35.


  • Lazarovitch, N., Ben-Gal A., Simunek J. and Shani U. (2007) Uniqueness of soil hydraulic parameters determined by a combined wooding-inverse approach. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 71, 860-865
  • Ben-Gal, A. (2007) The contribution of foliar exposure to boron toxicity. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 30, 1705-1716.
  • Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal, A., Sarig, P., and Zippilevitch E. (2007) Boron toxicity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in conjunction with salinity and rootstock effects. J. of Hortic. Sci. and Biotech. 82, 547-554.
  • Tripler E, Ben-Gal A., Shani U. (2007) Consequence of salinity and excess boron on growth, evapotranspiration and ion uptake in date palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L., cv. Medjool). Plant and Soil. 297,147-155.
  • Shani, U., Ben-Gal, A. Tripler E. and Dudley, L.M. (2007) Plant response to the soil environment: an analytical model integrating yield, water, soil type and salinity. Water Resources Res. Vol. 43, W08418, 10.1029/2006WR005313
  • *Shani, U., Ben-Gal, A., Tripler, E. and Dudley L. M. (2009) Correction to "Plant response to the soil environment: An analytical model integrating yield, water, soil type, and salinity", Water Res. Res., 45, W05701, doi:10.1029/2009WR008094.
  • Yermiyahu U., Tal A., Ben-Gal A., Bar-Tal, A., Tarchitzky J. and Lahav, O. (2007) Rethinking desalinated water quality and agriculture, Science, 318, 920-921.

2006 and prior

  • Veste, M., Ben-Gal, A., Breckle, S.-W. & Shani, U. (2000) Impact of thermal stress and high VPD on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Citrus grandis under desert conditions, Acta Horticulturae 531:143-149.
  • Ben-Gal A and Shani U. (2002) A highly conductive drainage extension to control the lower boundary condition of lysimeters. Plant and Soil, 239:9-17.
  • Ben-Gal A and Shani U (2002) Yield, transpiration and growth of tomatoes under combined excess boron and salinity stress. Plant and Soil, 247:211-221.
  • Ben-Gal A., Karlberg L., Jansson P-E and Shani U. (2003). Temporal robustness of linear relationships between production and transpiration. Plant and Soil, 251: 211-218.
  • Ben-Gal A and Dudley L (2003) Phosphorus availability under continuous point-source irrigation. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 67: 1449-1456.
  • Shenker M, Ben-Gal A and Shani U (2003) Sweet corn response to combined nitrogen and salinity environmental stresses. Plant and Soil 256:139-147.
  • Ben-Gal A and Shani U (2003) Water Use and Yield of Tomatoes under combined excess boron and water stress. Plant and Soil, 256:179-186.
  • Ben-Gal A, Lazorovitch N and Shani U (2004) Subsurface drip irrigation in gravel filled cavities. The Vadose Zone Journal. 3:1407-1413.
  • Shani U and Ben-Gal A. (2005) Long-term response of grapevines to salinity: osmotic effects and ion toxicity. Am. J. Enol. Vit. 56:148-154.
  • Shani U., Ben-Gal A., and Dudley L. (2005) Environmental implications of adopting a dominant factor approach to salinity management. J. Envir. Qual. 34: 1455-1460.
  • Karlberg, L., Ben-Gal, A., Jansson, P-E. and Shani, U. (2006) Modelling transpiration and growth in salinity-stressed tomato under different climatic conditions. Ecological Modelling, 190. 15-40.
  • Lazarovitch, N., Ben-Gal A., and Shani U. (2006) An automated rotating lysimeter system for greenhouse evapotranspiration studies. Vadose Zone Journal. 5:801-804.
  • Segal, E., Ben-Gal, A., and Shani U. (2006) Root water uptake efficiency under ultra-high irrigation frequency. Plant and Soil. 282:333-341.
  • Yermiyahu, U., Ben-Gal, A. and Sarig, P. (2006). Boron toxicity in grapevines. HortScience. 41:1698-1703.



Book Chapters and Invited Review Papers (selected)

  • Ben-Gal, A., Tal, A., and Tel-Zur, N. (2006) The Sustainability of arid agriculture: trends and challenges. Annals of Arid Zone, 45, 227-258.
  • Ben-Gal, A. (2011). Sustainable water supply for agriculture in Israel. In: Alon Tal and Alfred Abed Rabbo, eds. Water Wisdom: Preparing the Groundwork for Cooperative and Sustainable Water Management in the Middle East. Rutgers University Press. ISBN: 978-0-8135-4771-8. pp 211-223.41.
  • Ben-Gal, A. (2011) Salinity and olive: from physiological responses to orchard management. Israel Journal of Plant Science. 59, 15-28.
  • Yermiyahu U., Ben-Gal A., and Keren R. (2011) Boron in treated wastewater. In: G. Levy, A. Bar-Tal and P. Fine (Eds.), Use of treated wastewater in agriculture: impacts on crop and soil environment. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. pp 216-233.
  • Ben-Gal A, Naoum S, Yermiyahu U, Jitan M, Mazahreh N, Qaryouti M, Qawasmi M. (2012) Managing irrigation water with high concentrations of salts in arid regions. In: U.S. EPA Guidelines for Water Reuse. E58-E59. http://www.waterreuseguidelines.org/images/documents/2012epaguidelines.pdf
  • Ben-Gal A., Yermiyahu U. and Dudley, L.M. (2013) Irrigation management under saline conditions. In: MOL 12, The Journal of the Science Society of Galicia. pp 8-32. http://scg.org.es/MOL_12.pdf



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